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African (Urban) Youth Languages  

Ellen Hurst

Online publication date:
Mar 2017
A growing phenomena in urban centers on the African continent in the latter half of the 20th century and start of the 21st century has been what have been described as Urban Youth ... More

Communicative Repertoires in African Languages  

Anne Storch

Online publication date:
Nov 2016
Even though the concept of multilingualism is well established in linguistics, it is problematic, especially in light of the actual ways in which repertoires are composed and used. The ... More

Conversation Analysis  

Jack Sidnell

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Conversation analysis is an approach to the study of social interaction and talk-in-interaction that, although rooted in the sociological study of everyday life, has exerted significant ... More

Deixis and Pragmatics  

William F. Hanks

Deictic expressions, like English ‘this, that, here, and there’ occur in all known human languages. They are typically used to individuate objects in the immediate context in which they ... More

Diglossia in North Africa  

Lotfi Sayahi

Online publication date:
Aug 2017
Diglossia refers to a situation where two linguistic varieties coexist within a given speech community. One variety, labeled the ‘high variety’, is used in formal domains including ... More

Early Modern English  

Terttu Nevalainen

Online publication date:
Aug 2017
In the Early Modern English period (1500–1700), steps were taken toward Standard English, and this was also the time when Shakespeare wrote, but these perspectives are only part of the ... More

Endangered Languages  

Chris Rogers and Lyle Campbell

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
The reduction of the world’s linguistic diversity has accelerated over the last century and correlates to a loss of knowledge, collective and individual identity, and social value. Often a ... More


Jenny Audring

Online publication date:
Jul 2016
Gender is a grammatical feature, in a family with person, number, and case. In the languages that have grammatical gender—according to a representative typological sample, almost half of ... More

Language and Social Hierarchy in West Africa  

Judith T. Irvine

In the indigenous sociolinguistic systems of West Africa, an important way of expressing—and creating—social hierarchy in interaction is through intermediaries: third parties, through whom ... More

Languages of the World  

William R. Leben

About 7,000 languages are spoken around the world today. The actual number depends on where the line is drawn between language and dialect—an arbitrary decision, because languages are ... More